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Guidelines for conservation of seagrass resources

Information: Marine Resources Research and Development Institute Coastal and Mangrove Forest
Date : 17 September 2019

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The rapid growth of development in the coastal areas of Thailand. As a result, there are activities to use in various fields. More seagrass areas causing impacts on the natural value and fertility of seagrass ecosystems. Therefore, it is imperative to find a method or measures to use seagrass resources appropriately and reasonably conservation is important to understand. It must be a matter of knowing how to use it properly no destruction and don't skimp until it doesn't take advantage. The key mechanism for successful conservation is at the local villagers must gather to help maintain the seagrass in their area to be used forever action approaches must reflect integrated seagrass management by focusing on development along with conservation which consists of 4 plans (Office of Environmental Policy and Planning 1998; Treasure 2010) is 

1. Tracking and Inspection is to monitor the status and problems of seagrass resources such monitoring must be carried out in a systematic manner to create a database of seagrass resources about the location and the abundance of seagrass resources throughout the country as well as analyze the problem of deterioration whether it is caused by nature or from human activities. Such information can be used to support the formulation of seagrass management and rehabilitation strategies that are appropriate for the situation by sharing ideas in the community and with relevant academics. as well as the declaration of marine and coastal protected areas of marine and coastal ecosystems worthy of conservation under Article 20, and marine and coastal areas that are subject to severe destruction or damage. According to Article 22 of the Marine and Coastal Resources Management Promotion Act 2015, including the regulation Rules for the proper use of community involvement processes.

2. Disseminate information, knowledge, and correct understanding about seagrass to people of all groups and levels to create awareness and awareness about the characteristics, habitats, benefits, and factors that have both positive impacts and negative effects of seagrass To stop/reduce the causes of degradation to your environment, water, and soil which affects seagrass for example, wastewater temporarily deteriorates seagrass as rapidly growing algae take up food and block photosynthesis. As for sediment deposition from sea dredging the opening of the soil along the hillside can cause permanent degradation of seagrass resources Because the sediment will change the sea floor to be too sandy or muddy. Not suitable for the growth of seagrass that used to exist. as well as approaches to prevent degradation and conservation of seagrass by creating advertising media public relations to target groups such as fishermen or people who take advantage as well as local officials concerned about the importance and benefits of seagrass resources to create awareness and awareness, love and cherish, eventually stepping into a role or participate in the conservation and development of their seagrass resources

3. Therapy and rehabilitation The goal is to restore the deteriorated condition of the seagrass resources to be usable. The degradation of seagrass resources, there are many factors. Therefore, focusing on dealing with those factors is as follows : 

  • Determination of seagrass resource utilization zone for the implementation of project activities of all relevant organizations, including the government sector private sector, and communities to be concrete in the management and conservation of seagrass in Thailand.

  • Control of sewage from large-scale activities such as hotels, and industrial plants to have wastewater treatment to meet the standards of food waste water base and industrial effluent standards before being discharged to the water source.

  • Support investment in the construction of a collection system and wastewater treatment of dense communities.

  • Controlling operators to implement intensive measures to prevent and reduce environmental impacts according to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report and the Initial Environmental Impact Assessment (IEE) report from coastal and marine developments of different types of seagrass area.

  • Determine the boundaries of seagrass borders offshore under the cooperation of community marine and coastal conservation groups by placing buoys to symbolize the seagrass area It is easy to monitor for misuse in seagrass areas such as trawls and trawls entering the seagrass fishery. However, seagrass resources can be naturally recovered to the perfect condition within 3 months if there are no factors of sediment deposition and wastewater disturb the environment.

  • Strict and strict rules violations or regulations Prohibition of the use of inappropriate fishing gear or some types of coastal areas, especially fishing gear that deteriorates seagrass resources such as Trawl Nets, Push Nests, and large beach seines.

  • Knowledge supports the Procurement of seagrass cultivars and methods to replace degraded seagrass habitats in favorable environments for organizations and residents.

4. Practical research studies The goal is to consider the results of research studies to support prevention and problem-solving, especially about the biology of some seagrass that can adhere well to sediment. Which helps reduce coastal erosion. The study covered reproductive characteristics by rhizome emergence, tillering method, and rhizome regeneration direction growth rate, etc., and a study on how to sow seeds and plant seagrass and methods of planting in other areas where seagrass resources have deteriorated or where seagrass is not growing under the seagrass biology characterization project and a research project on the utilization of seagrass breeding and propagation.

Seagrass transplanting

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Approaches to restoring degraded seagrass resources

Information: Marine Resources Research and Development Institute Coastal and Mangrove Forest
Date : 17 September 2019

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1. Prevention and reduction of impacts on the seagrass area Considering the current status of seagrass resources, problem conditions, and utilization characteristics found that some seagrass sources, even if it is not in a state of deterioration but it tends to deteriorate in the future due to factors such as factors related to development Illegal and illegal fishing dropping anchor or dredging, the seagrass area there are both the influence area of ​​activities within dense communities, sparse communities, and tourist attractions or a source that is likely to be developed into a tourist destination in the future, If such factors are controlled seagrass will be able to heal itself naturally and return to its original state by controlling such factors local authorities should be responsible for this because they are closely related to the seagrass and it is in line with the principle of decentralization of natural resources and environmental management of the federal government to the locality to conserve seagrass resources and contribute to sustainable benefits as well as the restoration of seagrass resources to return the benefits as before the important thing is to create awareness among people to love and cherish seagrass resources.

2. Spatial management At present, seagrass resources are scattered in various areas of Thailand some seagrass resources are beginning to deteriorate due to careless and improper use, such as fishing in seagrass resources using the wrong fishing gear including sediments from coastal development and waste discharge from various activities nearby. The vast majority of seagrass sites have not yet established any spatial management measures except the seagrass source of Trang Province, which the province has undertaken concrete conservation of seagrass resources by virtue of the Fisheries Act B.E. 2490. certain types of fishing gear are prohibited in most of the seagrass areas of Trang Province. Policy and Plan for Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality 1997-2016 on Coastal Resources Summary of key issues in coastal and seagrass resource management to preserve and conservation and attaches importance to the traditional fishing activities that are ongoing is to define the utilization area divided into plant sanctuaries and a permit area for local fishing activities as well as to promote research for conservation which determines the utilization area of ​​seagrass resources and appropriate activities provided or prohibiting operations in that utilization area, It will be a guideline and criteria to adhere to the practice in the care and utilization of seagrass resources according to academic principles and causing an impact on seagrass resources at an acceptable level as well as coordinating the utilization and reducing the problem of seagrass resources. In this regard, each seagrass resource utilization area and determination criteria Activities that are prohibited or must be controlled in the utilization zone, as well as the areas designated under the utilization area (Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, 1998; Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning), should consist of

  • Reservation area : this should be a large seagrass area, There is a high abundance of seagrass. There is little risk of the impact of development ecologically valuable and the diversity of species and be able to maintain fertility If well maintained It is forbidden to do any business to maintain the balance of the ecosystem or research and to be a source of food for larvae and breeding grounds for marine animals to continue to support fertility in nearby coastal fisheries 

  • Conservation Area : It is an area with moderate seagrass fertility or tends to deteriorate but can be restored to its original state to have some type of activities, such as tourism for research studies and small-scale indigenous fisheries that do not affect the seagrass ecosystem, etc., but must have restoration measures to prevent erosion from sea waves.

  • Area of ​​use : should be an area with relatively low seagrass fertility but can be used Under the mechanism of law, such as allowing fisheries to catch fish or may change the utilization as appropriate However, in some areas it may be possible to restore the abundance of both flora and fauna and continue to use by promoting the restoration of seagrass resources together with local villagers.

In this regard, the guidelines for spatial management under the Marine and Coastal Resources Management Promotion Act B.E. 2558 have been prescribed in Article 20 to ministers with the approval of the National Marine and Coastal Resources Policy and Planning Committee has the power to issue ministerial regulations designating areas with important marine ecosystem characteristics, It is a habitat for important marine flora and fauna including the area that should be preserved in nature and Article 22, Marine and coastal areas that are subject to severe destruction or damage or in the case where the Board deems it necessary to preserve, protect or preserve for the benefit of or build the integrity of marine and coastal ecosystems. The Minister shall propose to the Cabinet without delay for approval of measures to protect marine and coastal resources including setting regulations and Rules for The proper utilization of Article 23 community participation processes to control and solve problems that arise or may arise. The area must be outside the conservation area of ​​6 types, namely national park areas according to the law on national parks. Wildlife sanctuaries and non-hunting areas under the law on wildlife Conservation and Protection National Reserved Forest Area according to the law on national reserved forests environmental protection area according to the law on promotion and conservation of national environmental quality that preserves plants according to the law on fisheries and other protected areas to preserve and preserve natural conditions as prescribed by law and the target area must be inspected by the Information Center Department of Marine and Coastal Resources there must be academic information to support the abundance and importance of seagrass resources in the area to use in determining the zoning of the area and organizing the use must be allocated under conservation area designations and rules for proper use must be established according to community participation movements.

3. Restoration by transplanting seagrass currently, seagrass resources in Thailand are still mostly abundant, This is because seagrass can naturally recover when disturbed except if the impact causes the seafloor sediments to change from the original and become an environment unsuitable for seagrass until unable to recover or difficult to recover by using spatial management guidelines for sustainable use, It is an appropriate approach to mitigate the threats that result in seagrass degradation causing seagrass resources throughout the area to be able to recover to be in perfect condition Seagrass transplanting can only be done in a small and suitable area. Therefore, the cause of the deterioration of seagrass resources in each area should be considered. Then there must be a way to reduce the causes of deterioration, such as water quality factors. In particular, sediment quality is the main factor that will make the chances of success in seagrass rehabilitation the most important for new natural seagrass growing areas, It can be difficult because seagrasses in nature have to contend with external factors such as tides, winds, depth, the translucency of seawater, temperature, and duration of exposure to sunlight of seagrass plants. There is not much variation in environmental factors. Such areas, especially the ponds around the shrimp farms along the coast If soil sediment quality can be controlled and adjusted, water quality, depth, lighting, and seawater flow in and out of the shrimp ponds appropriately, and there is no wind wave factor as well.

Growing Enhalus acoroides seagrass from seed

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