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The status of coral reefs in Thai waters in 17 provinces in 2021 found that coral reefs in the Andaman Sea Coral reefs were in good condition, 54.8% moderately intact, 26.3% damaged and 18.9% damaged On the Gulf of Thailand coral reefs were in good condition, 49.7% moderately intact, 21.3% damaged, 29.0% damaged. The most complete coral reefs were Surat Thani, followed by Phang Nga Province, while the province with the most damaged coral reefs was Trat Province. Overall, the coral reefs on the Andaman Sea were more intact than those in the Gulf of Thailand.

When comparing the coral reef status data between the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand between 2020 and 2021, it was found that the overall coral reef status of the country tends to be more complete. There has been a positive change in both the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. In 2021, there were 52.3% of coral reefs in good condition (an area of ​​77,961 rai) than in 2020, which was a percentage 39.2 (Area 49,055 Rai) Reefs in the Andaman Sea that are in good condition increased from 33.5 percent to 54.9 percent. Coral reefs are in good condition. increased from 32.4 percent to 49.7%.

The long-term trend of changing coral reef status The overall picture is stable. both the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand In the Andaman Sea, coral reefs in many provinces tend to be stable. except for Krabi Province which has changed for the better The same is true for the Gulf of Thailand. Most of the status has not changed. Except for the area of ​​Chonburi Province which has changed for the better. while the lower Gulf of Thailand has increased damage, especially in Narathiwat Province while coral reefs in Nakhon Si Thammarat There have been change for the better. As for the area coverage of living corals of coral reefs in Thai waters in 2021 (Figure 1.2), it was found that coral reefs in the central Gulf of Thailand in Surat Thani and Chumphon provinces including coral reefs in the Andaman Sea The coverage of live corals is 40-80% higher than that of coral reefs in the eastern Gulf of Thailand. which covers the area of ​​live corals at the level of 21-40 percent.


The figure shows the proportion of coral reefs of different statuses and area size (rai) of coral reefs in each province.

From a survey in 2021


The figure shows the trend of change in coral reef status in 2021 compared to the survey in 2020.

The status of coral reefs in many areas is likely to improve, such as coral reefs in several areas of Koh Kood, Trat Province, Khai Islands, Phang Nga Province, and Racha Yai Island, Cape Panwa, Maiton Island, Phuket Province. Both from the natural recovery of coral reefs and the restoration of coral reefs. Including area of ​​live coral reefs increased from coral replanting. There are still problems in operations in various fields, so it needs to be improved. Close control and tightening of the worker's work


The figure shows the increase in coral reef area from the coral reef restoration project by replanting.

(on the sand outside the coral reef)

In addition to the natural recovery, Many coral reefs have been managed and managed systematically, allowing coral reefs to recover despite heavy tourism, such as coral reefs in the Khai Islands group of Phang Nga Province, where coral reefs have begun to recover naturally. continuously after the management of the Department of Marine and Coastal Resources to place mooring buoys to reduce anchor drops in coral reefs. Controlling activities that can cause damage to coral reefs since 2016. Coral recovery in many areas is still at an early stage which may not see a clear change in status Consequently, proper management is required on an ongoing basis for recovery to occur continuously however some coral reefs are still in deteriorating condition. Or tend to be more degraded, such as coral reefs in front of Thai Mueang Beach, Phang Nga Province, and Bang Tao Bay, Kamala Bay, Bon Island, Phuket Province. Most of the causes of deterioration are caused by human activities such as wastewater from community areas. Coastal sediment Residual waste in coral reefs, such as the nets that cover coral reefs at Losin Island Coral damage from coral displacement in sea walker diving activities such as Koh Larn and Koh Sak Chonburi. Fishing fisheries that cause coral trampling in shallow waters and dropped anchors in coral reefs and intensive tourism that lacks proper academic management make the environment in the area unfavorable for the recovery of coral reefs.


The picture shows the fishing gear left in the coral reef (Top left-right picture) Coral damage from coral migration in sea walker diving

(Bottom left picture) and reef anchor drop (Bottom right picture)


The picture shows the results of monitoring the recovery of coral from the retrieval of nets at Losin Island. Pattani Province (left picture). Reefs in the area covered by nets have recovered normally (Bottom left picture) and how to monitor coral reef recovery (right picture).

Overall, Thailand has approximately 149,182 rai of coral reefs, 73,756 rai on the Andaman coast, and 75,426 rai on the Gulf of Thailand. The province with the most coral reefs is Surat Thani, 35,982 rai, followed by Phang Nga at 26,691 rai. Compared to the survey data during the year. 2020 and 2021 show that coral reef status in 2021 is likely to be more complete. The coral reefs are in good condition. Increased from 32.9% to 52.3%, the largest coral reef in the country is Surat Thani Province. The coral reefs that are in a damaged state in Trat Province and Phang Nga Province.

The study of coral reef status in the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman seas at 357 stations found that in many areas, coral reef status changed with a tendency to be more complete, such as Krabi Province. Chonburi and Nakhon Si Thammarat Province The main problem persists with coral reefs in Thailand. In addition to problems caused by natural factors, including the phenomenon of coral bleaching. This most recently happened in 2021 and is likely to increase in frequency from the past. Or it might happen every year. And the impact of storm Pabuk that occurred at the beginning of 2019. At present, there are still threats caused by human actions. The problem that causes the impact is garbage in the coral reefs. especially waste such as seine illegal fishing near coral reefs or in coral reefs on distant islands sediments from coastal development, such as open-top construction.

Dredging coastal areas for various activities; smuggling wastewater into the sea throwing garbage into the sea smuggling coral reefs and catching ornamental fish for commercial purposes. The smuggling of corals adjacent to the beach makes it a sandy ground for tourists to swim. Or dredging coral reefs into waterways corals reefs tourism or impacts causing damage from tourists, type diving (skin diving), anchoring ships in coral reefs. Problems caused by scuba diving, Sea walker and try dive, standing on coral trampling and turning over corals to find creatures such as shellfish, octopus, sea cucumbers, and oil spills into the sea. Oil leaching from fishing boats Discharging water from a tour boat Coastal effluents such as Koh Tao, Koh Phangan, Koh Samui, etc. However, the severely damaging impact is a wide area covering almost the whole country, the impact of coral bleaching in 2010.

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